Rabu, 26 Juni 2013

Tulisan Bahasa Inggris 2

The sale of goods and service is not restricted to local, regional, or national markets, it often takes place on an international basis. Nations import goods that key lack or cannot produce as efficiently as other nations, and they export goods that they can produce more efficiently. This exchange of goods and services in the world, or global market is known as international trade. There are three main benefits to be gained from this type of exchange.

First, international trade makes scarce goods available to nations that need or desire them. When a nation lacks the resources needed to produce goods domestically, it may import them from another country. For example, Saudi Arabia imports automobiles; the United States, bananas;  and japan, oil.

Second, international trade allows a nations to specialize in production of those goods for which it is particularly suited. This often results in increased output, decreased costs, and a higher national standard of living. Natural, human, and technical resources help determine which products nation will specialize in. Saudi Arabia is able to specialize in petroleum it has necessary natural resource; Japan is able to specialize in production of television because it has the human resources required to assemble the numerous components by hand; and the United State is able to specialize in the computer industry because it has the technical expertise necessary for design and production.

There are two economic principles that help explain how and when specialization is advantageous. According to the theory of absolute the advantage, a nation ought to specialize in the goods that it can produce more cheaply than its competitors or in the goods that no other nation is able to produce. According to the theory of comparative advantage, a nation ought to concentrate on the products that it can produce most efficiently and profitably. For example, a nation might produce both grain and wine cheaply, but it specialize in the one which will be more profitable.

The third benefit of international trade is its political effects. Nations that trade together develop common interest which may help them overcome political differences. Economic cooperation has been the foundation for many political alliances, such as the European Economic Community (Common Market) founded in 1957.

International trade has done much improve global conditions. It enables countries to import goods they lack or cannot produce domestically. It allows countries to specialize in certain goods with increased production and decreased prices. Finally, it open the channels of communication between nations.

Multinational are large international companies which produce goods in several countries. Some well-known ones are Ford, Shell, Coca-Cola, Sony, and Unilever. Their turnover is huge, being greater in some cases than the national income of countries such as Switzerland or the Netherland. Because they are so big they attract a lot of attention. Usually their business methods are carefully watched by foreign governments.

People are particularly interested in their activities in poor and developing countries. They ask the question: How have multinationals improved the economies of these countries? In reply, a manager working in a multinational will say something like this:

“Well, for a start, we provide the capital which poor countries need for their economic growth. The point I’m trying to make is that our capital, together with local savings, finances their industries. Another thing, we share our technology with local business – we introduce our scientific and technical methods to them. And they increase the productivity of their workers.
Don’t forget also that we produce a wide variety of goods. And let’s face it, we employ thousands of people all over the world. No one can accuse us of not playing goods wages. So, I think you’ll agree, we’re responsible for raising living standard.”

Critics of multinationals do not accept such arguments. They say that the big corporations are not major supplier of capital. In Latin America, for example, multinational have mostly used capital provided by local banks and investors, and have not brought in capital frome the United State and Europe. Because of this, there is a shortage of money to finance local business. Foreign firms have taken the lion’s share of the available capital.

The critics agree that multinationals introduce new technology. However, it is often unsuitable for developing countries. The imported technology is too expensive and complicated. It has been developed for industrial societies, not for poor countries. In agriculture. For instance, most countries don’t need tractors, which are expensive to buy and operate. They need better hoes and ox-ploughs.

Another disadvantage of the new technology is that it will probably reduce jobs. Generally it is labour saving. This is because it comes from the United State and Europe where wage costs are high. Poor countries can do without such technology. They have large numbers of workers looking for employment.

The Noun Phrase

A noun phrase includes a noun a person, place, or thing and the modifiers which distinguish it. A noun phrase is a phrase which has a noun  as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.

Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions or post positions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents.

Countable (or count) nouns are words which can be counted. They have a singular form and a plural form. They usually refer to things. Most countable nouns become plural by adding an ‘s’ at the end of the word.
eg: A horse Two horses

Nouns that do not have plural forms are called uncountable nouns or mass nouns.
For example:
• A book, two books…
• An apple, two apples…

Uncountable (or non-count) nouns are words which cannot be counted. Therefore, they only have a singular form. They have no plural forms because they only have a singular form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them.
For example:
• Sand
• Water
• Information
• Coffee
• Work

Using Countable & Uncountable Nouns
When using countable or uncountable nouns, pay attention to articles and adjectives! Some articles and adjectives can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. However, others can be used with only countable or only uncountable nouns.

(use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns) Uncountable (there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns) An Apple / 1 Apple Rice I eat an apple every day. I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day.)
Add (s) to make a countable noun plural There is no plural form for an uncountable noun apples rice I eat an apple every day. Apples are good for you. I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.
A computer= Computers are fun. To make uncountable nouns countable add a counting word, such as a unit of measurement, or the general word piece. We use the form "a ....... of ......."
An elephant = Elephants are large.
Rice = a grain of rice
Water = a glass of water
Rain = a drop of rain
Music = a piece of music

You can use some and any with countable nouns.
Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work.

You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use many and few with plural countable nouns
So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species.
There are few elephants in England.

You only use much and little with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.
You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns.
No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before.

You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns.
A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.
Making uncountable nouns countable

You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun.

For example:
• A piece of information.
• 2 glasses of water.
• 10 liters of coffee.
• Three grains of sand.
• A pane of glass.

Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object).

For example:

- glass : A glass of water. (Countable) | A window made of glass. (Uncountable)
Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers, or one of several types. This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted. Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:

- Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day. (Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee) You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day."  
- The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian. (Here coffees refers to different types of coffee) You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian."






Minggu, 28 April 2013

Passive Voice

The passive voice is a grammatical construction (specifically, a "voice"). The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of an active sentence (such as Our troops defeated the enemy) appears as the subject of a sentence with passive voice (e.g. The enemy was defeated by our troops). Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My car was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my car was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A car was stolen.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)
Examples of Passive

Simple Present
A car
is driven
by John.
Simple Past
A car
was driven
by John.
Present Perfect
A car
has been driven
by John.
Future I
A car
Will be driven
by John.
A car
can be driven
by John.

Present Progressive
A car
is being driven
by John.
Past Progressive
A car
was being driven
by John.
Past Perfect
A car
had been driven
by John.
Future II
A car
will have been driven
by John.
Conditional I
A car
would be driven
by John.
Conditional II
A car
would have been driven
by John.