Rabu, 26 Juni 2013

The Noun Phrase

A noun phrase includes a noun a person, place, or thing and the modifiers which distinguish it. A noun phrase is a phrase which has a noun  as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.

Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions or post positions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents.

Countable (or count) nouns are words which can be counted. They have a singular form and a plural form. They usually refer to things. Most countable nouns become plural by adding an ‘s’ at the end of the word.
eg: A horse Two horses

Nouns that do not have plural forms are called uncountable nouns or mass nouns.
For example:
• A book, two books…
• An apple, two apples…

Uncountable (or non-count) nouns are words which cannot be counted. Therefore, they only have a singular form. They have no plural forms because they only have a singular form. It also means that they do not take a/an or a number in front of them.
For example:
• Sand
• Water
• Information
• Coffee
• Work

Using Countable & Uncountable Nouns
When using countable or uncountable nouns, pay attention to articles and adjectives! Some articles and adjectives can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. However, others can be used with only countable or only uncountable nouns.

(use a/an or a number in front of countable nouns) Uncountable (there is no a/an or number with uncountable nouns) An Apple / 1 Apple Rice I eat an apple every day. I eat rice every day. (not I eat a rice every day.)
Add (s) to make a countable noun plural There is no plural form for an uncountable noun apples rice I eat an apple every day. Apples are good for you. I eat rice every day. Rice is good for you.
A computer= Computers are fun. To make uncountable nouns countable add a counting word, such as a unit of measurement, or the general word piece. We use the form "a ....... of ......."
An elephant = Elephants are large.
Rice = a grain of rice
Water = a glass of water
Rain = a drop of rain
Music = a piece of music

You can use some and any with countable nouns.
Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work.

You can use some and any with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use many and few with plural countable nouns
So many elephants have been hunted that they are an endangered species.
There are few elephants in England.

You only use much and little with uncountable nouns.
I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.
You can use a lot of and no with plural countable nouns.
No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before.

You can use a lot of and no with uncountable nouns.
A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.
Making uncountable nouns countable

You can make most uncountable noun countable by putting a countable expression in front of the noun.

For example:
• A piece of information.
• 2 glasses of water.
• 10 liters of coffee.
• Three grains of sand.
• A pane of glass.

Sources of confusion with countable and uncountable nouns The notion of countable and uncountable can be confusing. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable depending on their meaning. Usually a noun is uncountable when used in a general, abstract meaning (when you don't think of it as a separate object) and countable when used in a particular meaning (when you can think of it as a separate object).

For example:

- glass : A glass of water. (Countable) | A window made of glass. (Uncountable)
Some supposedly uncountable nouns can behave like countable nouns if we think of them as being in containers, or one of several types. This is because 'containers' and 'types' can be counted. Believe it or not each of these sentences is correct:

- Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two coffees a day. (Here coffees refers to the number of cups of coffee) You could write; "Doctors recommend limiting consumption to two cups of coffee a day."  
- The coffees I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian. (Here coffees refers to different types of coffee) You could write; "The types of coffee I prefer are Arabica and Brazilian."






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